Conservation measures have resulted in a population increase in Europe, particularly at the species's largest colony (Lake Mikri Prespa in Greece), but also in other countries, following implementation of conservation actions, and it has therefore been downlisted from Vulnerable. The potential remains for the species to undergo large declines in the future, given ongoing threats in much of the range, and the continued conservation-dependence of European colonies  As such, it is precautionarily suspected that this species could undergo moderately rapid declines in the next three generations, and it is listed as Near Threatened. The largest current populations are believed to be in Kazakhstan (3,000-3,200 pairs), Russia (1,500-2,700 pairs) and Greece (1,900 pairs) (Catsadorakis and Portolou 2017). The largest colony, at Lake Mikri Prespa, Greece, numbers c.1,400 breeding pairs (M. Malakou in litt. 2009) and there are around 450 pairs in the Danube Delta (S. Bugariu in litt. 2007). The total European population is estimated at 3,000-3,600 pairs (BirdLife International 2015). The Mongolian population continues to decline and is almost extinct (S. Chan in litt. 2003).

BirdLife International. 2017. Pelecanus crispus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2017: e.T22697599A119401118. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2017-3.RLTS.T22697599A119401118.en. Downloaded on 11 February 2018.



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